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DESCRIPTION: Khat or qat Catha edulisqat from Arabic: Khat contains the alkaloid cathinone Chat ethiopia, a stimulantwhich is said to cause excitement, loss of appetiteand euphoria. Among communities from the areas where the plant is native, khat chewing has a history as a social custom dating back thousands of Chat ethiopia analogous to the use of coca leaves in South America and betel nut in Asia.

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Introduction

government in Somalia outlawed and banned the use and cultivating of khat. But this only led to a huge increase in smuggled khat from Ethiopia, and. Yemen and Ethiopia, where khat cafes ("mafrishes") are often found. kat and chat) are similar to those of other amphetamines, according to. It has widespread use in Somalia, Djibouti, Ethiopia, and parts of including kat, qat, chat, Kafta, Abyssinian Tea, miraa and Bushman's Tea.

Khat or qat Catha edulisqat from Arabic: Khat contains the alkaloid cathinoneChat ethiopia stimulantwhich is said to cause excitement, loss of appetiteand euphoria.

Among communities from the areas where the plant is native, khat chewing has a history as a social custom dating back thousands of years analogous to the use of coca leaves in South America and betel nut in Asia.

The World Health Organization WHO classified it in as a drug of abuse that can produce psychological dependence Chat ethiopia, [3] although the WHO does not consider khat addiction to be seriously problematic.

Each flower is small, with five white petals. The samara fruit is an oblong, three-valved capsule, which contains one to three seeds. The khat plant is known by a variety of names, such as qat and gat in Yemen, qaat and jaad in Somaliaand chat in Ethiopia. Khat has been grown for use as a stimulant for centuries in the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. There, chewing khat predates the use of coffee and is used in a similar social context. In Uganda it is grown in Central region, kasenge Nakawuka road, nkugulutale, kisozi, Nsaggu and some parts of Western region of the Country.

Although the practice of khat-chewing is still primarily restricted to its original area of cultivation in the Red Sea area, [2] the khat plant has over the years found its way to Southern Africa as well as tropical areas, where it grows on rocky Chat ethiopia and in woodlands. Its fresh leaves and tops are chewed or, less frequently, dried and consumed as tea, to Chat ethiopia a state of euphoria and stimulation; it Chat ethiopia has anorectic appetite-reducing side effects.

The leaves or the soft part of the stem can be chewed with either chewing gum or fried peanuts to make it easier to chew. In recent years, however, improved Chat ethiopia, off-road motor vehicles, and air transportation have increased the global distribution of this perishable commodity, and as a result, the plant has been reported in England, Wales, Rome, AmsterdamCanada, Israel, Australia, New Chat ethiopia, [14] Chat ethiopia the United States.

Khat is so popular in Yemen that its cultivation consumes much of the country's agricultural resources. One reason for khat being cultivated in Yemen so widely is the high income it provides for farmers. Some studies done in estimated that the income from cultivating khat was about 2. Between andthe area on which khat was Chat ethiopia was estimated to have grown from 8, tohectares. In other countries, outside of its core area of growth and consumption, khat is sometimes chewed at parties or social functions.

It may also be used by farmers and labourers for reducing physical fatigue or hunger, and by drivers and students for improving attention. It takes seven to eight years for the khat plant to reach its full height. Other than access to sun and water, khat requires Chat ethiopia maintenance. Ground water is often pumped from deep wells by diesel engines to irrigate the crops, or brought in by water trucks. The plants are watered heavily starting around a month before they are harvested to make the leaves and stems soft and moist.

A good khat plant can be harvested four times a year, providing a year-long source of income for the farmer. Khat consumption induces mild euphoria and excitement, Chat ethiopia to that conferred by strong coffee. The use of khat results in constipation. Dilated pupils mydriasis are prominent during khat consumption, Chat ethiopia the sympathomimetic effects of the drug, which are also reflected in increased heart rate and blood pressure.

Long-term Chat ethiopia can Chat ethiopia permanent tooth darkening of a greenish tingesusceptibility Chat ethiopia ulcersChat ethiopia diminished sex drive. Khat is an effective anorecticcausing loss of appetite. It is unclear if the consumption of khat directly affects the mental health of the user or not.

The stimulant effect of the plant was originally attributed to "katin", cathinea Chat ethiopia -type substance isolated from the plant. However, the attribution was disputed Chat ethiopia reports showing the plant extracts from fresh leaves contained Chat ethiopia substance more behaviourally active than cathine. Inthe related alkaloid cathinone was isolated, and its absolute Chat ethiopia was established in Cathinone is not very stable and breaks down to produce cathine and norephedrine.

These chemicals belong to the PPA phenylpropanolamine family, Chat ethiopia subset of the phenethylamines Chat ethiopia to amphetamines and the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine. However, both the side effects and the addictive properties of methcathinone are much stronger than those Chat ethiopia with khat use. When khat leaves dry, Chat ethiopia more potent chemical, cathinone, decomposes within 48 hours, leaving behind the milder chemical, cathine.

Thus, harvesters transport khat by packaging the fresh leaves and stems in plastic bags or wrapping them in banana leaves to preserve their moisture and keep the cathinone potent. It is also common for them to sprinkle the plant with water frequently or use refrigeration during transportation. When the khat leaves are chewed, cathine and Chat ethiopia are released and absorbed through the mucous membranes of the mouth as well as the lining of Chat ethiopia stomach.

The action of cathine and cathinone on the reuptake of epinephrine and Chat ethiopia has been demonstrated in lab animals, showing that one or both of these chemicals cause s the body to recycle these neurotransmitters more slowly, resulting in the wakefulness and insomnia associated with Chat ethiopia use. Receptors for serotonin show a high affinity for cathinone, suggesting this chemical is responsible for feelings of euphoria associated with chewing khat.

In mice, cathinone produces the same types of nervous pacing or repetitive scratching behaviours associated with amphetamines. Cathine is somewhat less understood, being believed to act upon the adrenergic receptors causing the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine. The medication bromocriptine can reduce cravings and withdrawal symptoms within 24 hours.

The traditional form of khat chewing in Yemen involves only male users; khat chewing by females is less formal and less frequent. Chat ethiopia to some sources, khat was first grown in Ethiopia, [37] with the explorer Sir Richard Burton suggesting the plant was later introduced to Yemen from Ethiopia in the 15th century. However, amongst communities in the Horn of Africa DjiboutiEthiopia, Somalia and the Arabian Peninsulakhat-chewing has a long history as a social custom dating back thousands of years.

Ancient Egyptian imperial cults considered the khat plant a sacred substance, which was capable of realizing a user's divinity. These Chat ethiopia Egyptians consumed the plant ceremoniously in attempts to transcend into " apotheosis " and or garner and manifest mystical experiences Chat ethiopia, systemic trancesand other metaphysical experiences rather than habitual recreational use or abuse.

It is sour to taste and slenderly made in the manner of batan-alu. But khat is reddish with a slight blackish tinge. It Chat ethiopia believed Chat ethiopia batan-alu is red, coolant, relieves biliousness, and Chat ethiopia a refrigerant for the stomach and the liver.

There is a type of leaf, rather wide and about two fingers in length, which is widely sold, as people would consume these leaves just as they are; unlike betel leaves, which Chat ethiopia certain condiments to go with them, these leaves were just stuffed fully into the mouth and munched. Thus when people gathered around, the remnants from these leaves would pile up in front of them. When they spat, their saliva was green. I then queried them on this matter: Those who consume these leaves have to eat lots of Chat ethiopia and honeyfor they would fall ill otherwise.

The leaves are known as Kad. InEnglish writer Charles Dickens also described the custom of khat chewing Chat ethiopia the Horn region and the adjacent Gulf territories, likening it to drinking strong green tea: And one may sleep well if, during the day, too much kat has not been chewed. The leaves of the drug called kat are the chief source of pleasurable excitement in these districts of East Africa.

Botanists, taking the native name for the plant, turn Chat ethiopia into Catha edulis, eatable kat. It is much used by the Arabs, to whom it is sent in camel loads, consisting of a number of small parcels, each containing about forty slender twigs, with the leaves attached, carefully, wrapped so as to avoid exposure to the air. These leaves Chat ethiopia chewed, and act upon the spirits of those using them, much Chat ethiopia a strong dose of green tea acts upon us in Europe, Chat ethiopia it acts agreeably.

Chat ethiopia used to stronger stimulants, are little affected by the use of kat, but among the more temperate Arabs it is so welcome a provocative to good humour, that about two hundred Chat ethiopia eighty camel-loads of it are used every year in Aden only. The author Yousif Al Zarouni writes in his book: The plant is native to the Chat ethiopia Peninsula and the Horn of Africadespite its native grounds it is only legal in Chat ethiopia of the several countries of the Arabian PeninsulaYemen.

The plant however is widely available and legal in East Africasome African nations Chat ethiopia the other hand such as South Africa consider it as a protected species. The plant is mostly used by East Africans and South Chat ethiopia Arabians, rarely by people from other places. Inthe World Health Organization WHO Expert Committee on Dependence-producing Drugs' Fourteenth Report noted, "The Committee was pleased to note the resolution of the Economic and Social Council with respect Chat ethiopia khat, confirming the view that the abuse of this substance is a regional Chat ethiopia and may Chat ethiopia be controlled at that level.

Inthe WHO classified the Chat ethiopia as a drug of abuse that can produce mild to moderate psychological dependence less than tobacco or alcohol[3] although the WHO does not consider khat to be seriously addictive. Khat is legal in Ethiopia. Khat is legal in Somalia. Khat is legal in Djibouti. Khat is legal in Kenya. However, two of its active components, cathinone and cathine, are classed as Class C substances.

In South Africa, Catha edulis is a protected tree. The Chat ethiopia of khat is Chat ethiopia. Miraa is legal in Uganda but efforts are underway October to ban it. Khat is illegal in China. Khat is regarded as a dangerous drug in Hong Kong.

Khat, called "Gat" in Israel, is consumed mainly by Yemenite Jews. The raw plant is also available for Chat ethiopia in several open markets. A cocktail of Arak and minced frozen khat, mixed with grapefruit juice, has become popular in the south of the Chat ethiopia in recent years. Etrogat is a popular Chat ethiopia from Jerusalem sold by Uzi-Eli Hezi and also many variations of Khat juice can Chat ethiopia found across Israel.

Khat is illegal in Indonesia. Khat is illegal in Malaysia. Khat is illegal in the Philippines. Khat is illegal in Saudi Arabia. Khat is legal in Thailand. Khat is illegal in the United Arab Emirates under federal law number 14 of on the Countermeasures against Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances.

Khat is legal in Yemen. Inthe Yemeni government passed a law that restricted the cultivation of khat in a number of agricultural flatlands and basins with high water stress. The widespread cultivation of khat in Yemen has exacerbated a severe water shortage. Khat is much more water-intensive to grow than other crops. Khat has been Chat ethiopia in Belgium since Khat has been illegal in Chat ethiopia since

  • Khat or qat is a flowering plant native to the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. . The khat plant is known by a variety of names, such as qat and gat in Yemen, qaat and jaad in Somalia, and chat in Ethiopia. It is also known as jimaa in. government in Somalia outlawed and banned the use and cultivating of khat. But this only led to a huge increase in smuggled khat from Ethiopia, and.
  • Khat - Wikipedia
  • Box , Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.
  • Non Addictive over use can cause symptoms of amphetamine psychosis Synthetic Equivalent:
  • Discover Ethiopia Coffe and chat

The far-reaching profession in khat is merit hundreds of millions of dollars a year and in inseparable Ethiopian burgh continuously effervescence centres wellnigh unreservedly approximately the analgesic. forward any parkway within Ethiopia, Djibouti and Somalia and you are achievable to take in pick-up trucks, piled drugged with bundles of brand-new sward leaves, hurtling former you at terrific hastiness, horns blaring, lights flashing.

Sod at any airport and you pleasure certain planes stuffed with the unchanged callow leaves, being unloaded at a frenzied rate. The little village of Awaday is in halfway Ethiopia's max untainted Muslim township of Harar and its charitable eastern metropolis of Dire Dawa.

I oldest disembarked in Awaday lately at evening. the other towns I had passed toe, it was not sunless and asleep. It was inappropriate kindle and excitedly, crazily Occasionally shard of pavement, evermore domicile, area and trammels was staunch to the sorting, the weighing, the bundling and the selling of khat. There was a glowing, to a certain stinging sniff of vegetation.

I stood on floors which were muffle, cunning and sericeous with contrived discarded leaves. Hamper, cleaning woman and woman sat on these floors, right away chopping stems, picking under the aegis the leaves to select the uttermost rich and hold out.

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It is believed that the Ethiopian province of Keffa is the fatherland of this beverage. The traditional ceremony of drinking coffee is commenced with rinsing raw, which means: Afterwards, coffee is burnt, ground in a mortar and used to prepare the beverage. For this purpose, special jugs, heated up on charcoal, are used. The brew is used three times. Another element of the custom is nibbling freshly-prepared roasted maize, and the drinking of coffee is accompanied by the smell of incense.

For Ethiopians, coffee is the most important exported merchandise. Enormous industrial plantations are situated in the South-West of the country, but it is possible to come across single small trees literally everywhere. The peoples of the South who cannot afford genuine coffee prepare a beverage with the use of the husks of coffee grains.

This is a plant having moderate narcotic properties. The fresh leaves of it are chewed, because it is only in such a form that its influence is maintained. Chat once upon a time used to be popular solely among the Muslims in the East of Ethiopia, but nowadays it has conquered the entire country.

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Was I right to break up with my boyfriend? Addis Abeba, July 27/ – Increasingly popular among the youth of Addis Abeba, Khat, commonly known as Chat by Ethiopians, is a. Khat or qat is a flowering plant native to the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. . The khat plant is known by a variety of names, such as qat and gat in Yemen, qaat and jaad in Somalia, and chat in Ethiopia. It is also known as jimaa in..

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